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Memorandum Reports

Report that covers interim results during the course of a project. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres.

Documents

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Collaborative Bayesian area clearance behavior for CAS Collaborative Bayesian area clearance behavior for CAS

Date added: 02/06/2017
Date modified: 02/06/2017
Filesize: Unknown

Collaborative Bayesian area clearance behavior for CAS. Munafò, Andrea. CMRE-MR-2016-022. December 2016.

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) present a low-cost alternative or supplement to existing underwater surveillance networks. The NATO STO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation is developing collaborative autonomous behaviours to improve the performance of multi-static networks of AUVs. In this work we lay the foundation to combine a range-dependent acoustic model with a three dimensional measurement model for a linear array within a Bayesian framework. The resulting algorithm is able to provide the vehicles with an estimation of the target depth together with the more usual information based on a planar assumption (i.e. target latitude and longitude). Results are shown through simulations and as obtained from the REP16 sea trial where for the first time a preliminary implementation of the method was deployed in the C-OEX vehicles.

On the performance of a 3-D cross array equipped underwater glider for direction of arrival estimation of underwater sound sources On the performance of a 3-D cross array equipped underwater glider for direction of arrival estimation of underwater sound sources

Date added: 12/22/2016
Date modified: 12/22/2016
Filesize: Unknown

On the performance of a 3-D cross array equipped underwater glider for direction of arrival estimation of underwater sound sources. Jiang, Yon-Ming. CMRE-MR-2016-013.  October 2016.

An eight-element, three dimensional cross array (3DCA) was design to be mounted on underwater gliders. The intention is to study its capability of providing the direction of arrival estimation of the signal. During the CMRE GLISTEN'15 sea trial, which was conducted in the Capraia Basin, north of Elba Island, Mediterranean Sea from 26 August to 09 September 2015, the 3DCA was mounted on a Teledyne Webb Research SLOCUM glider and tested at sea. Continuous wave pulses at multiple frequencies (300 - 1000 Hz) were transmitted by an acoustic source. The 3DCA-equipped glider was programmed to glide along both helical and straight tracks in the vicinity of the acoustic source. The direction of arrival capability of the glider is evaluated preliminarily in this study using the acoustic data collected, along with the glider pitch-roll-heading angles, as well as the glider position information. The basic finding is that the DOA estimation algorithm developed for the 3DCA is feasible for the signals at frequencies of 331, 419, 539 and 843, and when the signal to noise ratio is greater than 25 dB.

Evolution of the LOON to enable classified research and experimentation of communications and networks in the maritime domain Evolution of the LOON to enable classified research and experimentation of communications and networks in the maritime domain

Date added: 12/12/2016
Date modified: 12/12/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Evolution of the LOON to enable classified research and experimentation of communications and networks in the maritime domain. Berni, Alessandro; Merani, Diego; Alves, João. CMRE-MR-2016-007.  November 2016.

The LOON testbed has been a crucial asset in support of the developments of CMRE's Communications and Networks in the maritime environment project. With the extension of the project's scope of work to include security aspects of underwater networking, the requirement to conduct classified work with the LOON emerges. This document provides a quick overview of the LOON, and contextualizes the security principles and requirements to follow. It concludes with an implementation roadmap to enable classified work on the LOON.

Discussion of suggestions, recommendations and conclusions reported by the NIAG SG190 Discussion of suggestions, recommendations and conclusions reported by the NIAG SG190

Date added: 12/12/2016
Date modified: 12/12/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Discussion of suggestions, recommendations and conclusions reported by the NIAG SG190. Alves, João; Petroccia, Roberto; Munafó, Andrea; Furfaro, Thomas C. CMRE-MR-2016-006.  November 2016.

The NIAG SG190 was created in-2014 to review the technical specification of the JANUS standard, to explore and suggest technical enhancements and to advise on what is practical, economical, reasonable and cost effective in designing, building and integrating JANUS-compliant communication systems. The NIAG SG190 produced a comprehensive report that includes findings, recommendations and suggestions on how to extend JANUS in future revisions. The present document offers CMRE's view on the NIAG SG190 final report, joining the group's suggestions with CMRE's accumulated expertise in the JANUS specification and operation at sea.

C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems [Ed. 2] C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems [Ed. 2]

Date added: 12/12/2016
Date modified: 12/12/2016
Filesize: Unknown

C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems. Berni, Alessandro ; Cignoni, Alessandro ; Merani, Diego ; Alves, Joao ; Vicen Bueno, Raul. CMRE-MR-2016-012/Ed. 2.  November 2016.

This report is ultimately about establishing links between underwater networks and C2 systems and about providing an underwater situational picture to NATO and nations' C2 systems during joint experimentations. The approach is to take a holistic view, taking in consideration the global picture, the current state of development of Underwater Communications and the Maritime Domain Operational Scenario. A key element to be considered is the fact that the challenges to be faced are not limited to the physics of communications. We need instead to consider the more complex challenges of interconnecting heterogeneous unmanned vehicles, very different in terms of attributes (from low cost expendable robots to very expensive autonomous systems), operating in different technical domains (Air, Surface, Sub-Surface) but all contributing to the operational scenario to be conducted in the Maritime Operational Domain. The fundamental building blocks required to deliver interoperable C2 for maritime unmanned systems are presented, using interoperability levels from NATO's Architecture Framework (NAF) and discussing some possible information exchange approaches. Focusing the attention on approaches capable of delivering the integration of unmanned maritime systems in the Recognized Maritime Picture and in Water Space Management services, the report documents progress realized over the past few years, through spiral development, demonstrations and experimentations. Building on the experience made during CWIX14 (interoperability as data provider and publishing of tracks to NATO and national C2 using "Fusion-as-a-Service") it was possible to demonstrate during CWIX16 a complete Glider Command and Control system (GliderC2S) for unmanned assets operating autonomously over 2,000 Km away, generating standard-based information products of relevant for different communities of interest. During sea trial REP16-ATLANTIC, instead, a first demonstration was made to enable Blue force tracking for underwater assets. Progress is also reported on the plans to augment the military communications capabilities of NRV Alliance, to improve the integration of the vessel, and of the unmanned maritime systems it supports, during future Military Exercises.

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