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Formal Reports

Report of results of completed projects or major milestones either in scientific terms or in terms acceptable to a wider audience. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres. 

Documents

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Coupled forward and inverse radiative transfer modelling Coupled forward and inverse radiative transfer modelling

Date added: 01/15/2015
Date modified: 01/15/2015
Filesize: Unknown

Coupled forward and inverse radiative transfer modelling.  Sanjuan Calzado, Violeta; Fournier, Georges. CMRE-FR-2014-027. December 2014.

The optical signature in the ocean is a result of the absorption and scattering processes in the medium with particles. Calculating the radiant field from these absorption and scattering interactions is a well known problem. The radiant distribution is calculated from the radiative transfer equation, where state of the art models are able to reproduce similar boundary conditions as in the environment. The inverse problem, where the absorption and scattering processes are calculated given a radiant distribution, has only been attempted once with numerical formulations. Gordon's algorithm is discussed here and evaluated for success under a variety of different types of scenarios. The algorithm convergence in shallow water scenarios with high bottom reflectivity and sediment resuspension is moderate with average convergence of 50%, whereas in oceanic stations it is less than 5%, even in scenarios presenting vertical stratification. However, the calculation time is very high and therefore it is notappropriate for implementation in any operational system. Based on Gordon's formulation, a new inversion algorithm has been developed, with excellent results compared with Gordon's approach. The algorithm does not include a forward radiative transfer model; therefore the computational time required is minimal. Initial tests have shown excellent agreement when introduced in an iterative fashion with a forward radiative transfer model compared with measured absorption and backscattering data.

An analysis of the multistatic employment of low frequency active sonar An analysis of the multistatic employment of low frequency active sonar

Date added: 01/15/2015
Date modified: 01/15/2015
Filesize: Unknown

An analysis of the multistatic employment of low frequency active sonar.  Strode, Christopher. CMRE-FR-2014-028. December 2014.

This work examines a number of metrics and operational analysis techniques to explore the potential employment of Low frequency Active Sonar (LFAS) within multistatic networks. The analysis considers the combined sonar area coverage of a number of monostatic and bistatic configurations including LFAS operating in conjunction with sonobuoys and helicopter dipping sonar. The conclusions of this study may be used to update the current Surface Ship Multistatic Sonar EXTAC which has been drafted by the United Kingdom, France and Canada.

Autonomous security networks for ASW: concept of operations and achieved performance 2011-2014 Autonomous security networks for ASW: concept of operations and achieved performance 2011-2014

Date added: 01/15/2015
Date modified: 01/15/2015
Filesize: Unknown

Autonomous security networks for ASW: concept of operations and achieved performance 2011-2014.  Sildam, Jüri; Strode, Christopher; Goldhahn, Ryan A.; LePage, Kevin D. CMRE-FR-2014-024. December 2014.

In this report the concept of Autonomous Security Networks for ASW is addressed through a combination of operations research, concept development, performance prediction and an assessment of the performance realized by the Cooperative Anti-submarine Warfare Programme at CMRE during three sea trials with SSKs and participation in two additional NATO ASW exercises. The performance achieved against diesel electric submarines (SSKs) is evaluated for two NATO ASW exercises in the Ionian Sea, Proud Manta 2012 and 2013 (POMA12/13), and three national experiments, Generic Littoral Interoperable Network Technology-Next Generation Autonomous Systems 2011 (GLINT-NGAS11) and Cooperative Littoral ASW Behaviour 2013 (COLLAB13), both conducted with SSKs from the Italian Navy (Marina Militare Italiana), and Rapid Environmental Picture 2014 (REP14 ATLANTIC), a trial conducted with the Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa). Comparisons between CMRE?s Multistatic Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA) predictions and data collected during recent CASW sea trials highlights the importance of certain robust features, a major theme of this report. The presence of these features is expected to be one of the key elements anticipated to yield performance improvements for AuSNs. The performance potential of AuSNs for ASW is also addressed using MSTPA for three traditional ASW mission areas: Hold-at-risk (barrier operations), Sea Shield (ASW sanitation of operations area surrounding a High-Value Unit), and Protected Passage (escort operations). These analyses evaluate the effectiveness of networks of autonomous vehicles which require periodic refueling, pursue various behaviours or strategies for maximizing network performance, and have range-limited communications. To place the results in context, these networks are evaluated as adjuncts to networks of traditional systems such as frigates (FFs) with variable depth or hull mounted sonar (HMS) and organic helicopters. A second major theme coming out of this analysis is the importance ofdata fusion, as enabled by underwater and RF networked communications, to the performance of AuSNs.

Adaptive Bayesian tracking under time-varying target detection capability of sensor networks with measurement origin uncertainty Adaptive Bayesian tracking under time-varying target detection capability of sensor networks with measurement origin uncertainty

Date added: 12/19/2014
Date modified: 12/19/2014
Filesize: Unknown

Adaptive Bayesian tracking under time-varying target detection capability of sensor networks with measurement origin uncertainty.  Papa, Giuseppe; Braca, Paolo; Horn, Steven A. CMRE-FR-2014-026. December 2014.

In practical target tracking applications the target detection performance of the sensors may be unknown and also change rapidly in time. This work considers a network of sensors and develops a target tracking procedure able to adapt and react to the time-varying changes of the network detection capability. These types of changes can seriously degrade the overall performance of the tracking system in terms of both the tracking of the target state and the detection of the presence or absence of the target. In this work, the above problem is solved proposing a tracking strategy based on a Bayesian framework, in which the dynamic target state is augmented with the sensor detection probabilities. The proposed method, referred to as adaptive tracker, is validated using extensive computer simulations and real-world experiments, conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Science and Technology Organization (STO) - Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE). The adaptive tracker is studied using a dataset collected during the CMRE high frequency (HF)-radar experiment, which took place between May and December 2009 on the Ligurian coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Also studied is a dataset collected during Proud Manta 2012 using the CMRE underwater tracking system, composed of an underwater wireless sensor network of autonomous underwater vehicles for anti-submarine warfare applications.

Users requirement document on next generation of EO ocean colour sensors Users requirement document on next generation of EO ocean colour sensors

Date added: 12/19/2014
Date modified: 12/19/2014
Filesize: Unknown

Users requirement document on next generation of EO ocean colour sensors.  Trees, Charles C. CMRE-FR-2014-023. November 2014.

There is not one quintessential remotely sensed ocean colour EO sensor or orbital platform that will answer all research questions and operational management decisions. Unfortunately, it will take a mixture of both Low Earth and Geostationary Orbit platforms with multi-spectral and hyper-spectral passive sensors, as well as active sensors, like LiDARs, to address the variety of users? needs and their required derived products. Additional analyses will have to be made to establish uncertainty budgets on these products, as well as a comparison of radiometric data and products from the various planned ocean colour sensor missions. Using the proposed International Network for Sensor InTercomparison and Uncertainty assessment for Ocean-Colour Radiometry (INSITU-OCR) by the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG), protocols will have to be established for combining these various satellite systems and sensors to generate a consistent and accurate coastal and oceanic bio-optical time series. What seems to be lacking is an international to individual governmental efforts at maintaining a satellite-based constellation of ocean colour EO sensors for operational users. There needs to be coordinated efforts to combine resources, share sensor technology and platforms and freely exchange remotely sensed data so that end users receive their derived products with associated uncertainties in a near-real time manner for management, mitigation and policy decisions.

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