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Formal Reports

Report of results of completed projects or major milestones either in scientific terms or in terms acceptable to a wider audience. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres. 


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Infrared detection of marine mammals Infrared detection of marine mammals

Date added: 12/01/2005
Date modified: 08/14/2012
Filesize: 1.72 MB

Infrared detection of marine mammals. Alberto Baldacci ; Michael Carron ; Nicola Portunato. SR-443. December 2005.

An infrared (IR) binocular, designed for in-the-field military applications, was tested using in situ marine mammals during the Mar Ligure Joint Experiment 2003 (MLJX'03) that took place in August-September 2003 onboard the NRV Alliance. The test investigated the potential IR technology for marine mammal detection, in both day time and night time conditions. The effectiveness of this IR system in detecting marine mammals was strongly affected by weather conditions, ranging from excellent performance during clear and low sea-state conditions to poor performance during hazy conditions or higher sea-states. The IR system was tested during both day and night.

Synthetic aperture sonar performance estimation: measurements and modelisation Synthetic aperture sonar performance estimation: measurements and modelisation

Date added: 10/01/2012
Date modified: 10/26/2012
Filesize: Unknown

Synthetic aperture sonar performance estimation: measurements and modelisation. Couillard, Michel ; Fox, Warren L. J. ; Groen, Johannes ; Davies, Gary L. CMRE-FR-2012-004. October 2012.

Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) systems are quickly becoming fundamental tools for seabed mapping applications, as they provide high resolution imagery independent of range from the sensor, with high area coverage rates. Fundamental in many SAS processing algorithms is the Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA) algorithm, one variant of which uses range-dependent ping-to- ping cross-correlations to help estimate platform movement. SAS performance, measured in terms of the maximum sonar range guaranteeing quality imaging, can be estimated as a function of these ping-toping correlations. This report investigates the performance of the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) 300 kHz interferometric SAS installed on the MUSCLE vehicle. First, performance assessments are obtained using data collected during four sea trials. Results show that environmental and operational conditions, such as multipath and adverse vehicle motion, can introduce significant variability in the maximum achievable sonar range. Then, at sea measurements are compared to the values obtained with the NATO sonar performance prediction model Espresso. It is shown that the Espresso outputs can be highly sensitive to the input parameters used. Nonetheless, when using realistic parameters, it is observed that Espresso can replicate the behavior of the correlation coefficient curves observed at sea.

Real-time wide-area tracking with intermittent multi-sensor data Real-time wide-area tracking with intermittent multi-sensor data

Date added: 01/01/2010
Date modified: 06/21/2012
Filesize: Unknown

Real-time wide-area tracking with intermittent multi-sensor data. Carthel, C.; Coraluppi, S.; Bryan, K.; Arcieri, G. NURC-FR-2010-003. January 2010.

This report describes the data fusion algorithms that constitute the core functionality of the NURC Maritime Surveillance System (MSS). Key features of this capability include modular, multi-hypothesis tracking logic as well as wide-area track fusion logic amenable to active (scan-based) and passive (time-series) data streams from cooperative and non-cooperative sensor systems. We illustrate the performance and robustness of the MSS with simulated sensor data. Additionally, we provide performance results for real-time at-sea processing during a recent NURC sea trial, Maritime Surveillance 09 (MS09).

Adiabatic Reverberation and Target Echo Mode Incoherent Sum "ARTEMIS" Adiabatic Reverberation and Target Echo Mode Incoherent Sum "ARTEMIS"

Date added: 11/01/2011
Date modified: 08/10/2012
Filesize: Unknown

Adiabatic Reverberation and Target Echo Mode Incoherent Sum "ARTEMIS". Harrison, C. NURC-FR-2011-009. November 2011

ARTEMIS is a very fast sonar performance model including target echo strength and reverberation for bistatic arrangement in an arbitrary range dependent environment with arbitrary sound speed variation. Outputs are three dimensional, and they can be presented in map form as target echo, reverberation or signal-to reverberation- ratio. This capability is rare amongst the many other existing reverberation models. It is based on the adiabatic approximation, and gets its speed by performing an incoherent mode sum over a continuum of WKB modes and interpolating from wavenumber to mode number. Three variants exist: one assumes a single target position (with corresponding reverberation) as is required by MSTPA; two others assume many hypothetical target positions to form a map of target echo and reverberation. In the latter two, acoustic WKB calculations are first done on a coarse rectangular grid, and these are spatially interpolated along radials from the source and receiver. Finally results are interpolated to a fine rectangular grid. The distinction between the last two variants is the order in which spatial and wavenumber interpolation are carried out. All these approaches evolved from the analytical solutions for isovelocity but with variable bathymetry.

GLider Acoustics Sensing of Sediments (GLASS): experiments and data analysis GLider Acoustics Sensing of Sediments (GLASS): experiments and data analysis

Date added: 01/13/2014
Date modified: 01/20/2014
Filesize: 1.4 MB

GLider Acoustics Sensing of Sediments (GLASS): experiments and data analysis. Nielsen, Peter L. ; Muzi, Lanfranco ; Siderius, Martin ; Miller, James H. CMRE-FR-2013-025. December 2013.

Seabed characteristics (geoacoustic properties and scattering strength) are critical parameters for sonar performance predictions. However, this bottom information is considered very difficult and expensive to achieve in the scientific community. In this report, an efficient method for inferring the seabed properties is presented; it relies on a previous methodology using long moored or drifting hydrophone arrays. Results from the GLASS'12 and GLASS'13 sea trials demonstrate the feasibility of using the technique by deploying a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle hosting a unique hydrophone array consisting of a five-element vertical line array and a four-element tetrahedral array. Seabed reflection and layering properties are estimated from sea surface generated ambient noise acquired during the two trials in different shallow water areas. Results from numerical modeling, data analysis and experimental measurements are presented with emphasis on comparing the seabed characterization at different locations with different bottom properties. Utilization of distant shipping was only demonstrated for the GLASS'12 trial data. The results obtained from both experiments demonstrate the potential of using autonomous underwater vehicles for seabed characterization and surface vessel tracking.

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