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Memorandum Reports

Report that covers interim results during the course of a project. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres.

Documents

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C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems

Date added: 11/09/2016
Date modified: 11/09/2016
Filesize: Unknown

C2 connectivity for unmanned maritime systems. Berni, Alessandro ; Cignoni, Alessandro ; Merani, Diego ; Alves, Joao ; Vicen Bueno, Raul. CMRE-MR-2016-012. October 2016.

This report is ultimately about establishing links between underwater networks and C2 systems and about providing an underwater situational picture to NATO and nations' C2 systems during joint experimentations. The approach is to take a holistic view, taking in consideration the global picture, the current state of development of Underwater Communications and the Maritime Domain Operational Scenario. A key element to be considered is the fact that the challenges to be faced are not limited to the physics of communications. We need instead to consider the more complex challenges of interconnecting heterogeneous unmanned vehicles, very different in terms of attributes (from low cost expendable robots to very expensive autonomous systems), operating in different technical domains (Air, Surface, Sub-Surface) but all contributing to the operational scenario to be conducted in the Maritime Operational Domain. The fundamental building blocks required to deliver interoperable C2 for maritime unmanned systems are presented, using interoperability levels from NATO's Architecture Framework (NAF) and discussing some possible information exchange approaches. Focusing the attention on approaches capable of delivering the integration of unmanned maritime systems in the Recognized Maritime Picture and in Water Space Management services, the report documents progress realized over the past few years, through spiral development, demonstrations and experimentations. Building on the experience made during CWIX14 (interoperability as data provider and publishing of tracks to NATO and national C2 using "Fusion-as-a-Service") it was possible to demonstrate during CWIX16 a complete Glider Command and Control system (GliderC2S) for unmanned assets operating autonomously over 2,000 Km away, generating standard-based information products of relevant for different communities of interest. During sea trial REP16-ATLANTIC, instead, a first demonstration was made to enable Blue force tracking for underwater assets. Progress is also reported on the plans to augment the military communications capabilities of NRV Alliance, to improve the integration of the vessel, and of the unmanned maritime systems it supports, during future Military Exercises.

Environmental variability in potential/future threat scenarios: the case of the Arctic Environmental variability in potential/future threat scenarios: the case of the Arctic

Date added: 11/09/2016
Date modified: 11/09/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Environmental variability in potential/future threat scenarios: the case of the Arctic. Russo, Aniello ; Borrione, InesOddo, Paolo. CMRE-MR-2016-015. October 2016.

The Arctic has been identified as one of the priority areas in the NATO Readiness Action Plan approved at the Wales Summit in 2014. During the past five decades, the Arctic region showed the largest METOC changes in the world, and climatic simulations indicate that this could continue during next decades. This report concerns the environmental variability of the Arctic region. The recent availability of instruments anchored in the sea ice and ability to profile the upper and intermediate layers of the Arctic waters made it possible to detect hundreds of mesoscale eddies in the Arctic halocline of the Canadian and Eurasian Basins, and their increasing number in 2013-2014 could be also related to the summer sea ice retreat. An even larger number of mesoscale eddies has been recently revealed by means of remote sensing in the Lofoten Basin, which is annually ice free. In both cases eddies are large enough to be detected, being in areas characterized by relatively large Rossby radii; but wide areas of the Arctic region have smaller Rossby radii and eddies currently can not be detected. The specific analysis conducted in an important area of the Arctic region, the Nordic (or GIN) Seas, revealed some aspects of its environmental variability and huge changes in temperature, salinity and sound speed profiles, that appear to differ with the regions considered. The Greenland Basin is shown to be characterized by a relevant positive trend of temperature and salinity and a reducing sound speed channel. In other areas, such as the eastern Lofoten Basin and in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, there is evidence of a high spatial and temporal variability, where intense mesoscale dynamics play a relevant role in the former area and internal waves in the latter one. The first part of the report summarizes the knowledge status of the environmental variability of the Arctic region, providing a picture of the ongoing climate change (decadal time scales) and of the mesoscale variability. The second part focuses on a key region, the Nordic Seas (traditional name for the Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea and Norwegian Sea, also indicated as GIN Seas). The southern part of this area was already investigated by CMRE from 1986 to 1993. During the last three decades relevant changes interested this region. Strong increasing trends of temperature and salinity are evident, above all during the last decade, and large variations in sound speed profiles are evident, apparently with different causes for variability depending on the areas considered. The very low values of Rossby radii in large areas of the Arctic region poses the need for higher resolution data, developing both new observing platforms and new coupled sea ice-ocean-acoustic models, in order to resolve the mesoscale variability and to adequately characterize the marine battlespace.

Predictions of a highly dynamic ocean environment: first results and lessons learned Predictions of a highly dynamic ocean environment: first results and lessons learned

Date added: 10/25/2016
Date modified: 10/25/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Predictions of a highly dynamic ocean environment: first results and lessons learned. Oddo, Paolo; Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Russo, Aniello. CMRE-MR-2016-014. October 2016.

Two high resolution Ocean Observing and Prediction Systems (OOPSs) have been developed and implemented in the framework of the LOGMEC16 (Long-Term Glider Mission for Environmental Characterization) experiment with the ultimate goal to provide operational support for marine environmental and acoustic characterizations. Data collected by two deep gliders monitoring continuously the Ligurian Sea from 2 May to 27 June 2016, have been assimilated in the OOPSs to constrain model error growth and improve system performance. The two OOPSs implemented differ in terms of adopted numerical models and data assimilation schemes. The first OOPS consists of a very high resolution (600m) NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model implementation coupled with a 3D variational assimilation system. The second OOPS implemented is based on a ROMS (Regional Ocean Modelling System) configuration with approximatively 1.8 Km resolution and it assimilated observational data using an Ensemble Kalman Filter ocean data assimilation scheme. Gliders, independent CTDs and METOC buoy data collected during the experiment have been used to validate real-time operational system results and quantify the improvements with respect to the existing, publicly available environmental products (provided by the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service, CMEMS). Both the high resolution OOPSs outperform CMEMS in terms of environmental characterization (here evaluated in terms of sound speed profile) for acoustic applications. The ROMS-EnKF significantly reduces large scale errors introduced through initial and lateral open boundary conditions, while the relatively high computational cost poses limitations on model resolution and frequency of the forecast. The NEMO-3DVar system only partially mitigates the parent model's large scale errors but better reproduces the observed variability.

Selection of environmental parameters to estimate on board autonomous security networks for ASW Selection of environmental parameters to estimate on board autonomous security networks for ASW

Date added: 10/25/2016
Date modified: 10/25/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Selection of environmental parameters to estimate on board autonomous security networks for ASW. Nielsen, Peter L. CMRE-MR-2016-011. September 2016.

This memorandum report documents the status of the environmental characterisation algorithm intended for implementation in Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) operations. The focus is to establish superiority in the underwater domain by increasing the likelihood of detecting, classifying, localising and tracking submarine targets. The success of detection depends on estimating the state of the underwater environment the sonar system is operating in which is controlled by ambient noise levels (sea state, distant shipping, land-based noise sources), the boundary conditions of the ocean (sea state, seabed properties) and the sound speed profile in water column. Optimisation over the location, depth and heading of the AUVs as well as their sonar settings can be pursued if the environmental parameters are known to a degree of confidence sufficient to be used in a sonar performance prediction model such as CMRE's Multi-Static Tactical Prediction Aid.

Operator interaction within a real time acoustic prediction framework Operator interaction within a real time acoustic prediction framework

Date added: 10/25/2016
Date modified: 10/25/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Operator interaction within a real time acoustic prediction framework. Strode, Christopher; Oddone, Manlio. CMRE-MR-2016-010. October 2016.

This document describes the existing real time acoustic prediction architecture afforded by recent developments made to the CMRE Multi Static Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA) software. A description of the current architecture that has been successfully demonstrated at CWIX 2015 and 2016 is given. Further details are then provided for proposed methods by which the software may be transitioned to a web service architecture for operators and planners allowing for increased interaction. Specifically the need for the operator to configure sensor parameters is described. This document describes the existing real time acoustic prediction architecture afforded by recent developments made to the CMRE Multi Static Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA) software. A description of the current architecture that has been successfully demonstrated at CWIX 2015 and 2016 is given. Further details are then provided for proposed methods by which the software may be transitioned to a web service architecture for operators and planers allowing for increased interaction. Specifically the need for the operator to configure sensor parameters is described.

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