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Formal Reports

Report of results of completed projects or major milestones either in scientific terms or in terms acceptable to a wider audience. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres. 

Documents

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Autonomous security networks for ASW: concept of operations and achieved performance 2011-2014 Autonomous security networks for ASW: concept of operations and achieved performance 2011-2014

Date added: 01/15/2015
Date modified: 01/15/2015
Filesize: Unknown

Autonomous security networks for ASW: concept of operations and achieved performance 2011-2014.  Sildam, Jüri; Strode, Christopher; Goldhahn, Ryan A.; LePage, Kevin D. CMRE-FR-2014-024. December 2014.

In this report the concept of Autonomous Security Networks for ASW is addressed through a combination of operations research, concept development, performance prediction and an assessment of the performance realized by the Cooperative Anti-submarine Warfare Programme at CMRE during three sea trials with SSKs and participation in two additional NATO ASW exercises. The performance achieved against diesel electric submarines (SSKs) is evaluated for two NATO ASW exercises in the Ionian Sea, Proud Manta 2012 and 2013 (POMA12/13), and three national experiments, Generic Littoral Interoperable Network Technology-Next Generation Autonomous Systems 2011 (GLINT-NGAS11) and Cooperative Littoral ASW Behaviour 2013 (COLLAB13), both conducted with SSKs from the Italian Navy (Marina Militare Italiana), and Rapid Environmental Picture 2014 (REP14 ATLANTIC), a trial conducted with the Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa). Comparisons between CMRE?s Multistatic Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA) predictions and data collected during recent CASW sea trials highlights the importance of certain robust features, a major theme of this report. The presence of these features is expected to be one of the key elements anticipated to yield performance improvements for AuSNs. The performance potential of AuSNs for ASW is also addressed using MSTPA for three traditional ASW mission areas: Hold-at-risk (barrier operations), Sea Shield (ASW sanitation of operations area surrounding a High-Value Unit), and Protected Passage (escort operations). These analyses evaluate the effectiveness of networks of autonomous vehicles which require periodic refueling, pursue various behaviours or strategies for maximizing network performance, and have range-limited communications. To place the results in context, these networks are evaluated as adjuncts to networks of traditional systems such as frigates (FFs) with variable depth or hull mounted sonar (HMS) and organic helicopters. A second major theme coming out of this analysis is the importance ofdata fusion, as enabled by underwater and RF networked communications, to the performance of AuSNs.

Adaptive Bayesian tracking under time-varying target detection capability of sensor networks with measurement origin uncertainty Adaptive Bayesian tracking under time-varying target detection capability of sensor networks with measurement origin uncertainty

Date added: 12/19/2014
Date modified: 12/19/2014
Filesize: Unknown

Adaptive Bayesian tracking under time-varying target detection capability of sensor networks with measurement origin uncertainty.  Papa, Giuseppe; Braca, Paolo; Horn, Steven A. CMRE-FR-2014-026. December 2014.

In practical target tracking applications the target detection performance of the sensors may be unknown and also change rapidly in time. This work considers a network of sensors and develops a target tracking procedure able to adapt and react to the time-varying changes of the network detection capability. These types of changes can seriously degrade the overall performance of the tracking system in terms of both the tracking of the target state and the detection of the presence or absence of the target. In this work, the above problem is solved proposing a tracking strategy based on a Bayesian framework, in which the dynamic target state is augmented with the sensor detection probabilities. The proposed method, referred to as adaptive tracker, is validated using extensive computer simulations and real-world experiments, conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Science and Technology Organization (STO) - Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE). The adaptive tracker is studied using a dataset collected during the CMRE high frequency (HF)-radar experiment, which took place between May and December 2009 on the Ligurian coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Also studied is a dataset collected during Proud Manta 2012 using the CMRE underwater tracking system, composed of an underwater wireless sensor network of autonomous underwater vehicles for anti-submarine warfare applications.

Users requirement document on next generation of EO ocean colour sensors Users requirement document on next generation of EO ocean colour sensors

Date added: 12/19/2014
Date modified: 12/19/2014
Filesize: Unknown

Users requirement document on next generation of EO ocean colour sensors.  Trees, Charles C. CMRE-FR-2014-023. November 2014.

There is not one quintessential remotely sensed ocean colour EO sensor or orbital platform that will answer all research questions and operational management decisions. Unfortunately, it will take a mixture of both Low Earth and Geostationary Orbit platforms with multi-spectral and hyper-spectral passive sensors, as well as active sensors, like LiDARs, to address the variety of users? needs and their required derived products. Additional analyses will have to be made to establish uncertainty budgets on these products, as well as a comparison of radiometric data and products from the various planned ocean colour sensor missions. Using the proposed International Network for Sensor InTercomparison and Uncertainty assessment for Ocean-Colour Radiometry (INSITU-OCR) by the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG), protocols will have to be established for combining these various satellite systems and sensors to generate a consistent and accurate coastal and oceanic bio-optical time series. What seems to be lacking is an international to individual governmental efforts at maintaining a satellite-based constellation of ocean colour EO sensors for operational users. There needs to be coordinated efforts to combine resources, share sensor technology and platforms and freely exchange remotely sensed data so that end users receive their derived products with associated uncertainties in a near-real time manner for management, mitigation and policy decisions.

Performance-based planning and evaluation for modern naval mine countermeasures systems Performance-based planning and evaluation for modern naval mine countermeasures systems

Date added: 12/17/2014
Date modified: 12/17/2014
Filesize: Unknown

Performance-based planning and evaluation for modern naval mine countermeasures systems. Connors, Warren A.; Fox, Warren L. J. CMRE-FR-2014-025. December 2014.

Recent work has shown the need for research into naval mine warfare planning and evaluation (P&E) techniques for modern AUV-based systems, as the current technologies and tactics are oriented towards traditional MCMV platforms. CMRE is considering the development of metrics for P&E of AUV-based systems, and how these metrics are to be integrated with existing MCM tools and tactics to provide interoperability between the traditional and the modern AUV-based platforms. This report considers the recent work at CMRE to characterise the side-looking sonar data for the development and integration of sensor models and sensor-centric approaches, known as through-the-sensor techniques, for P&E. This work includes the development of methods for mapping the CMRE MUSCLE data products to a recently developed through-the-sensor evaluation model, the execution of two large experiments to assist in the characterisation of side-looking sonars, and the further evaluation and input to the EXTAC 873 document, which describes experimental tactics for future MCM using AUV-based platforms. This work introduces current and future work aimed at the integration of modern systems into the existing MCM tools and tactics, prediction models for sensor performance, and the integration of AUV P&E metrics into the overall metrics of NATO MCM. The goal of this work is to provide guidance on the algorithms required for MCM P&E, and the development of metrics for interoperability with traditional MCM platforms.

ISAR processing for the CMRE radar sensor network data ISAR processing for the CMRE radar sensor network data

Date added: 12/02/2014
Date modified: 12/02/2014
Filesize: Unknown

ISAR processing for the CMRE radar sensor network data. Bucciarelli, Marta; Errasti, Borja; Braca, Paolo. CMRE-FR-2014-021. October 2014.

The CMRE Radar Sensor Network (CMRE RSN) is formed by two low power, compact and lightweight sensors transmitting linear Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) signals: the Marine Radar Node (MRN), which is equipped with a rotating antenna and is usually employed for detection and tracking of targets, and the Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Node (ISARN), which has a static antenna and is normally used to obtain high resolution images of targets. This report is focused on the imaging capability of the RSN. Among very different motion compensation and autofocusing techniques, an autofocusing procedure developed for FMCW ISAR system, is described and then tested both on simulated and on live ISARN data. The technique is based on the maximization of a focusing quality parameter for the radial motion compensated Range Doppler image of a target, and it proved to be suitable for FMCW ISARN monostatic acquisitions. In recent years, significant of interest has grown concerning the exploitation of data acquired by multiple sensors belonging to multistatic or Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Inverse SAR (ISAR) imaging systems. Indeed better performance and/or increased information can be retrieved considering a network of cooperating sensors. The possibility of exploiting data acquired by both sensors in the CMRE RSN has been investigated to extract more information on the target motion. Indeed the MRN could be used in "ISAR mode" inhibiting the antenna rotation and fixing the antenna bearing. After the derivation of a model for the multiple sensor received signals and the conception of multiple sensor translational motion estimation techniques, preliminary results on simulated and real data show that the availability of multiple sensors observing the same target with different points of view allowed the estimation of both the radial and cross-radial component of the translational motion of the target itself, while single sensor based techniques usually provide information on the radial component only.

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