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Formal Reports

Report of results of completed projects or major milestones either in scientific terms or in terms acceptable to a wider audience. Note: Unless linked to the full text, reports are only available to NATO member nations from designated distribution centres. 


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NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability exploration, experimentation, examination, exercise (CWIX) 2016 exercise plan for EKOE and CASW capabilities NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability exploration, experimentation, examination, exercise (CWIX) 2016 exercise plan for EKOE and CASW capabilities

Date added: 09/06/2016
Date modified: 09/06/2016
Filesize: Unknown

NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability exploration, experimentation, examination, exercise (CWIX) 2016 exercise plan for EKOE and CASW capabilities. Vicen Bueno, Raul; Strode, Christopher; Oddone, Manlio; Berni, Alessandro; Cignoni, Alessandro; Merani, Diego; Cimino, Giampaolo; Cecchi, Daniele; Soto, José; Fiala, Michal. CMRE-FR-2016-002. May 2016.

This formal report contains the exercise plan prepared to participate in the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, eXamination, eXercise (CWIX) 2016. Two CMRE programmes participate in CWIX 2016: EKOE ? Environmental Knowledge and Operational Effectiveness and CASW ? Collaborative AntiSubmarine Warfare. CMRE brings two scientific capabilities to the NATO Exercise CWIX 2016, demonstrating scientific products that could turn into operational in the future: EKOE ?NATO-CMRE-GliderC2S@CWIX 2016? (Glider Command and Control System) and CASW ?NATOCMRE- RAPS@CWIX 2016? (Real-time ASW Prediction Service). Besides testing interoperability of the CMRE capabilities in CWIX 2016, CMRE has an important objective and challenge for this year. CMRE will be running a sea-trial in the Ligurian Sea deploying a fleet of underwater robots/gliders for up to 2 months May-June 2016, called LOGMEC16 (Long-Term Glider Missions for Environmental Characterization). The challenge for CMRE in 2016 is to provide environmental information acquired by underwater robots/gliders and their positions from the sea to command and control (C2), common operational picture (COP) and geospatial, meteorological and oceanographic (GEOMETOC) systems in a NATO coalition. Interoperability with these NATO and national systems will be done in realtime and at NS level. The CMRE Multistatic Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA) will provide surface ships with real-time active and passive sonar performance predictions to coalition partners. The exercise plan first provides the document for internal approval. Second, it gives a background of the CWIX exercise to the readers, as well as the objectives and challenges set for this exercise participation, highlighting the collaboration with the LOGMEC16 sea-trial. Third, it provides an overview on the way to operate in CWIX, focusing on physical locations and partners. Fourth, it describes the preparation of the experiment, focusing on the plan of the tasks and the risk assessment. Fifth, it provides a comprehensive list of equipment requirements for each capability so that it can be executed at the required security level. Sixth, it describes the team required to participate, as well as the roles and responsibilities of each member of the team. Seventh, the contact information of the exercise lead and capability leads is reported for future contact and further information requests. Finally, a comprehensive description of each capability is provided in annexes.

Towards real-time passive sonar performance prediction with AIS shipping Towards real-time passive sonar performance prediction with AIS shipping

Date added: 04/19/2016
Date modified: 04/19/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Towards real-time passive sonar performance prediction with AIS shipping.  Strode, Christopher ;  Traverso, Federico ; Oddone, Manlio. CMRE-FR-2016-001. March 2016.

This document describes the approach to be taken to add the simulation of passive broadband sonar to the Multistatic Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA) .This will allow the tool to consider the whole spectrum of ASW operations in which the use of both active and passive sonars is common. With increasingly capable threat submarines the ASW commander will be required to coordinate multiple heterogeneous assets employing different sonar systems in some optimum configuration. There is then a continued need to develop suitable software able to consistently apply an acoustic algorithm and environmental inputs to multiple sonars operating in both active and passive modes.

Analysis of ASW serials conducted during exercise Dynamic Mongoose 15 using MSTPA Analysis of ASW serials conducted during exercise Dynamic Mongoose 15 using MSTPA

Date added: 03/22/2016
Date modified: 03/22/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Analysis of ASW serials conducted during exercise Dynamic Mongoose 15 using MSTPA. Strode, Christopher. CMRE-FR-2015-010. September 2015.

This report presents the results of ASW exercise reconstructions using the Multistatic Tactical Planning Aid (MSTPA). In addition to ingesting standard positional sitreps and tactical narratives, the tool may be used to simulate range dependent sonar performance. This allows for a more detailed analysis of a given serial in which the reasons behind submarine detections may be explored in terms of both acoustic propagation and target strength. The analysis presented here shows excellent agreement between predicted detection opportunities and reported sub-marine detections made by the surface assets. Further, the analysis may be used to explore periods in which submarine detection was predicted but not realised. It is envisaged that this type of analysis may be used to increase the learning opportunities of NATO ASW exercises.

Performance achieved during REP 14 Atlantic and COLLAB/NGAS 14 trials Performance achieved during REP 14 Atlantic and COLLAB/NGAS 14 trials

Date added: 02/22/2016
Date modified: 02/22/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Performance achieved during REP 14 Atlantic and COLLAB/NGAS 14 trials. Sildam, Jüri; Canepa, Gaetano; Munafo, Andrea; Strode, Christopher; LePage, Kevin D.; Goldhahn, Ryan A.. CMRE-FR-2015-024. January 2016.

For the purpose of completeness of bi-static underwater system performance evaluation we propose a new diagnostic test of target perceivability based on known target locations and a set of contacts collected by the sonar system. Assuming exchangeability of target perceivability and target presence or state, our approach is based on a concept of channel capacity (C) defined in terms of maximum mutual information for a given target state distribution and the distribution of contacts defined by a signal-to-noise detection threshold (DT). In our experiments the DT value corresponds to the maximum C value (Cp) defined for an optimal bi-partition of contacts collected over a fixed number of sonar pings within a time window of O(10 minutes). The respective contact partition defines the probability of target detection (Pd) and the probability of false alarms (Pfa) achievable under Cp. The time series of Cp, Pd, and Pfa were obtained by sliding the time window along the target trajectory. We demonstrate a successful test by applying the algorithm to data collected by underwater autonomous vehicle systems operated during two trials in 2014. Target tracks and visually observable target detections match well the observed Pd and Cp peaks.

Context-based reasoning for maritime situation awareness Context-based reasoning for maritime situation awareness

Date added: 02/01/2016
Date modified: 02/01/2016
Filesize: Unknown

Context-based reasoning for maritime situation awareness. Jousselme, Anne-Laure. CMRE-FR-2015-022. December 2015.

The explicit consideration of context in information fusion systems offers the necessary flexibility and adaptability to generalise processes while at the same time improving the interpretation of their outputs. It does however, raise the challenges of adequate context definition and formalisation so that context provides a useful and appropriate contribution to the underlying processing framework. In this report, we propose a formalisation of context-based reasoning from an information fusion perspective, tying together the themes of source quality, uncertainty representation and measurement space versus decision space, all around the central notion of context. We first illustrate the fact that context is a relative notion on the sub-problem of Maritime Situation Awareness. The various levels of processing, the embedded problems, the different granularity levels, the required dynamic of the processing, as well as the place and role of the human are highlighted. The use of context in the literature from different domains (e.g. artificial intelligence, information fusion, natural language processing) is mapped onto the modelling and processing steps. Information and source quality are placed at the core of the reasoning process for a sound consideration of the different quality dimensions and an appropriate representation and processing of uncertainty. The proposed scheme in this report is represented as a Direct Acyclic Graph where context is a central variable influencing the other variables of source quality, of measurement, of decision, of measurement and decision spaces, and of information gathering policy. The proposed scheme is simple enough to provide an appropriate level of abstraction with only 6 compound variables. It is general enough to be applied to different application domains, in particular from information processing to information gathering and source tasking. The proposed framework offers the required generalisation and flexibility of a problem-solving method which can be tuned and adapted to dynamical contextual information. An example of implementation using a Bayesian network is given, and its extension to other uncertainty representations is explored. A Maritime Anomaly Detection problem is illustrated through the proposed approach. We illustrate how the context can then be used to adapt information processing on the fly by changing granularity of the problem or correcting the information based on sources’ performance assessment.

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